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Health Economics
Health and Health Services

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Resources

REPORT

Cost of Health Inequality to the NHS in Wales Report 1: Cost Associated with Inequality in Hospital Service Utilisation to the NHS in Wales

This report by Public Health Wales estimates the financial cost associated with inequality in hospital service utilisation to the NHS in Wales to help inform decision-making and resource prioritisation towards prevention and early intervention through an equity lens, contributing to COVID-19 sustainable and inclusive recovery. The report is accompanied by an interactive dashboard, allowing users to explore in detail the costs associated with inequality by service category, sex, age and level of deprivation.

Cost of Health Inequality to the NHS in Wales Report 1: Cost Associated with Inequality in Hospital Service Utilisation to the NHS in Wales


GUIDE

Cost of Health Inequality to the NHS in Wales: Interactive Dashboard

This interactive dashboard by Public Health Wales accompanies the ‘Cost of health inequality to the NHS in Wales’ report. The dashboard allows users to select how the data are displayed and to select outcomes and healthcare settings of interest.

Cost of Health Inequality to the NHS in Wales: Interactive Dashboard


REPORT COVID

Economic Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak on Health Indicators and Health Service Use in Wales: Longstanding Illness Projection 2020/21 – 2022/23

This report by Public Health Wales forecasts the potential economic consequences of COVID-19 on Longstanding Illness (LSI), taking into account the relationship between change in unemployment rate and LSI.

Economic Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak on Health Indicators and Health Service Use in Wales: Longstanding Illness Projection 2020/21 – 2022/23


REPORT

Our Programme for Transforming and Modernising Planned Care and Reducing Waiting Lists in Wales

This plan by Welsh Government sets out four clear commitments to people in Wales to help them access the health advice and services they need. These are to: increase health service capacity; prioritise diagnosis and treatment; transform the provision of planned care; and provide better information and support to patients.

Our Programme for Transforming and Modernising Planned Care and Reducing Waiting Lists in Wales


REPORT

What’s next? Key issues for the Sixth Senedd

This report by the Welsh Parliament Senedd Research explores the challenging social, economic and public policy issues of the day in Wales, including hospital waiting times and the backlog in ‘routine’ healthcare created by COVID-19.

What’s next? Key Issues for the Sixth Senedd


REPORT

The Costs and Consequences of Violence to the Healthcare System in Wales

This report by Liverpool John Moores University identifies and measures the costs of violence to the healthcare system in Wales, using cost-of-illness (COI) methods. It concludes that violence imposes a large economic burden on the healthcare system in Wales, with an estimated £46.6 million spent on addressing the short-term consequences of violence in 2018/19.

The Costs and Consequences of Violence to the Healthcare System in Wales


GUIDE

How to Make the Case for Sustainable Investment in Well-being and Health Equity: A Practical Guide

This practical guide by Public Health Wales outlines a step-by-step process of how to synthesise, translate and communicate public health and health economics evidence into policy and practice, making the case for sustainable investment in well-being and health equity. The guide argues that population health is an economic asset and a productive good. It is intended to help key stakeholders, advocates for health and equity, civil servants and other health and non-health professionals who have a role in informing, influencing or shaping national and subnational policy and practice.

How to Make the Case for Sustainable Investment in Well-being and Health Equity: A Practical Guide


GUIDE

Driving Prosperity for All through Investing for Health and Well-being: An Evidence Informed Guide for Cross-sector Investment

This guide by Public Health Wales suggests policy options for priority investment in Wales, based on the best available Welsh and European evidence. The policy options address areas of high burden and costs, as well as demonstrating co-benefits (returns) to the economy, society and the environment, including investment in the health sector, a life-course approach to health and social care, and early access to mental health services. The guide can be used by policy- and decision-makers across national and local government, the health and social care service, and public bodies in all other sectors in Wales.

Driving Prosperity for All through Investing for Health and Well-being: An Evidence Informed Guide for Cross-sector Investment


ARTICLE

Return on Investment of Public Health Interventions: A Systematic Review

This systematic review explores the return on investment (ROI) of public health interventions delivered in high income countries with universal healthcare, including ROIs in relation to healthcare public health interventions (e.g. disease management or medication adherence for high-risk patients) and health protection and health promotion interventions, as well as wider determinants and legislative interventions.

Return on Investment of Public Health Interventions: A Systematic Review


PAPER

The Relationship Between Social Care Resources and Healthcare Utilisation by Older People in England: An Exploratory Investigation

The aim of this report is to provide an overview and informed critique of models that have been used in the UK and internationally to project healthcare demand, and assess their applicability for different projection scenarios. We provide a comparison of the projection approaches and highlight their benefits and limitations, as well as their suitability depending on research objectives and use.

The Relationship Between Social Care Resources and Healthcare Utilisation by Older People in England: An Exploratory Investigation


PAPER

Is an Ounce of Prevention Worth a Pound of Cure? Estimates of the Impact of English Public Health Grant on Mortality and Morbidity

In this paper, researchers examined the availability of a funding formula for the public health grant to investigate the relationship between such expenditure and mortality. Most previous attempts to estimate the marginal productivity of English health care expenditure have employed instruments that rely on statistical tests alone for their justification. A new approach to instrumentation has proposed the use of ‘funding rule’ variables as instruments, which can be justified on theoretical grounds. Although there have been many studies of the impact of specific health promotion activities on outcomes, there have been no successful attempts to relate English public health expenditure to mortality. Moreover, by converting healthcare (treatment) expenditure to a local authority geography, it is possible to estimate an outcome specification that includes both treatment (healthcare) and prevention (public health) expenditure. Consequently, it is possible to identify the relative contribution of both types of expenditure to reductions in mortality.

Is an ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure? Estimates of the impact of English public health grant on mortality and morbidity


PAPER

Approaches to Projecting Future Healthcare Demand

Since 2010, adult social care spending has fallen significantly in real terms whilst demand has risen. Reductions in local authority budgets are expected to have had spill over effects on the demand for healthcare in the English NHS. The study explores the effects of changes in local authority social care resources on older people in terms of healthcare utilisation and the use of NHS Continuing Care (NHS CHC). The paper contributes to a growing literature exploring the interdependencies between social care and healthcare.

Approaches to Projecting Future Healthcare Demand


LEAFLET

Sustainable Investment in Population Health and Well-being: Towards a Value-Based Public Health

The World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre on Investment for Health and Well-being (WHO CC) at Public Health Wales is progressing a pioneering programme of work, applying a Social Value approach towards building a ‘Value-Based Public Health’ and an Economy of Wellbeing in Wales.

Sustainable Investment in Population Health and Well-being: Towards a Value-Based Public Health


ARTICLE

Toward an Economy of Well-being: The Economic Impact of the Welsh Healthcare Sector

Population health and well-being is both a result, as well as a driver, of economic development and prosperity on global, European, national and sub-national (local) levels. In this paper, the economic importance of the healthcare sector to the Welsh economy is explored. We use a large number of data sources for the UK and Welsh economy to derive an economic model for 2017. We estimate output, income, employment, value-added, and import multipliers of the healthcare sector. Results suggest that the healthcare sector has an above average contribution in four explored economic aspects of the Welsh economy (output, income, employment, value-added), according to its impact on the surrounding economic ecosystem.

Toward an Economy of Well-being: The Economic Impact of the Welsh Healthcare Sector